The Navajo reservation is the largest Indian Reservation in the United States and covers parts of Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah. Most of Southwest Affinity's jewelry is made by Navajo silversmiths that live, work and raise their families on or near the reservation in New Mexico and Arizona. We do feature jewelry made by Cherokee, Zuni and Hopi Indians as well, but for the most part Navajo silversmiths make the jewelry that we carry.
Most Navajo silversmiths come from a long line of silversmiths in their family, for this is a time honored trade that is past down from generation to generation. Many of the artists today, both men and woman, produce jewelry which is better classified as art that is worthy of display in museums.
Personal adornment found in the southwestern area consisting of Arizona and New Mexico is thought to date back to the first half of the 1st millennium AD and consisted of bracelets made from a shell carved in the shape of a frog. Also found were birds and snake motifs in pierced work along with other jewelry made from shells and covered with turquoise mosaics. Evidence shows that as far back as the Archaic period people decorated shells with carvings and/or enamel work. Feathers and turquoise were the materials available to the Native Americans for personal ornamentation until the arrival of the white man.
It is my understanding that sometime around the 16th century the Spaniards came to the southwest and at that time the Mexican people learned how to smith silver from the Spaniards. It is generally believed that the Navajo Indians didn't actually start working silver until after their four year imprisonment at Fort Sumner where they had been taken after their capture by American forces under the command of Christopher (Kit) Carson in 1863-64. It was generally assumed that since they had no silver with them at Fort Sumner that they hadn't started working in silver yet. However, as Raymond Friday Locke in his book The Book of the Navajo points out, "people do not take valuables, such as silver jewelry, to prison with them." It is reported that the Navajo "Captains" wore silver belts in 1795 and then again in 1855, W.W. H. Davis said he saw the Navajos wearing "many valuable belts of silver." So whether they started working silver back in the mid 1800's because they were impressed with the silver buttons that the Mexican soldiers wore on their uniforms (as I have read) or they had been working silver since the 1700's, basically it isn't an ancient art to them. What we do know is that the Navajo are reported to be the first Indians to learn the skill of silversmithing from the Mexicans. A Navajo man named Atsidi Sani or Old Smith apparently learned to work silver from a Mexican after his return from Fort Sumner and then taught this to his sons. Then four years later, Atsidi Chon or Ugly Smith, the first Navajo known to make a conche belt moved to Zuni where he reportedly taught the Zuni Indians the craft of silversmithing. Twenty-seven years later a Hopi Indian named Lanyade learned this skill.
Many things influence the designs used in the Navajo jewelry. The designs seen from other traders from across the Mississippi River, the Spaniards, Mexicans and of course, it was just natural for them to carry their own designs and traditions into the making of their jewelry. There are designs dating thousands of years ago that were found etched on the walls of caves that are being used in jewelry that is made today . . . such as the famous hunched back flute player Kokopelli.
Although the beautiful gemstones are a very important part of the jewelry made by Navajo silversmiths, the Navajo's focus is mostly on the ornate detailed designs made with the silver. Over many generations they have developed their skills, talents and designs into an art form all their own. Many people from all over the world have come to appreciate and love the look of the southwestern jewelry that they handcraft today.
So whether you are interested in the traditional southwestern jewelry pieces of the Navajo people such as bears, eagles, buffalos, turtles, wolfs and other fetishes that represent various meanings to the Native American people or the most modern styles of to days jewelry you have come to the right place. Our silversmiths make something for everyone!
I have tried my best to provide you with a brief history of the Navajo silversmiths as I understand it. For more information on the Navajo silversmith might I suggest contacting http://askmehelpdesk.com or the Indian Arts and Crafts Association at http://www.iaca.com. Written by Beverley Burklow Jones
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